Personality of an individual is comprised of their aptitude and their attitude or behaviours. People differ from each other in terms of these attributes and these differences play vital role in various decisions that structure the course of one’s life.
Effective decision-making requires the knowledge about these differences, thus, establishing the need for assessment.Assessment of an individual involves looking at the knowledge, skills, abilities and behaviours of the individual in either qualitative or quantitative terms.
Aptitude is defined as the natural, learned or acquired ability to do something. It is the readiness of an individual based on his willingness and ability to acquire some skill or knowledge particular to certain activities.Knowledge of aptitude can help us to predict an individual’s future performance.
Hence, an aptitude assessment looks at one or more clearly defined and relatively homogenous segments of ability. They assess a test taker’s potential for learning or ability to perform in a new situation based upon their cumulative life experiences.
Aptitude tests may be single or specialized as per the skill or ability such as artistic ability, manual dexterity, clerical skills and motor abilities or maybe general.
A single aptitude test will measure just one ability domain, and a multiple aptitude test battery such as Differential Aptitude Tests (DAT) will provide a profile of scores in several distinctive ability areas.
Aptitude tests such as the reasoning test are often used to predict success in an occupation, training course, or educational endeavour. Organizations such as schools, businesses and government agencies often use aptitude tests to predict how well someone will perform if placed in them.
The most common use of aptitude tests is for college admissions and corporate hiring. Within an organization, aptitude tests are used at various stages to estimate the extent to which an individual will profit from a specific course or training.
Assessment of success in a field is usually done by comparison of scores with others already working in the given occupation.These tests could support selection decisions – for hiring, promotion and role change within an organization.
Only assessment of aptitude does not depict completely the entire personality as one’s performance and potential are also affected by the interest and perception.
In fact, most organizations today emphasize upon the attitude of the individual along with the aptitude during selection and development processes.
Hence, assessment of the other personality attributes also becomes imperative.
Behaviour is the manner in which one conducts oneself, especially with respect to others. Behaviours are formed over the period of time as per the experiences and perception of the individual.
Behavioural assessment is an ongoing process wherein the responses are interpreted as samples of behaviour that can be generalized to other situations as well. Behavioural assessments concentrate on identifying certain behaviours and review them objectively upon description and occurrence.
These assessments also pay attention to the antecedents and consequences of the behaviour. Therefore, most behavioural assessments are structured upon the ABC (Antecedent-Behaviour-Consequence) or SORC (Stimulus-Organismic-Response-Consequence) model.
The assessment methods include behavioural interviews, checklists, rating scales, structured interviews and situational judgement tests. Assessments such as DiSC are forced-choice questionnaires delivered online or through a paper pencil instrument.
These methods help in identifying the factors which motivate the individual and his expected actions in a situation. Since, most behavioural procedures tend to be highly pragmatic they are usually interwoven with development approaches.
DiSC is a behavioural assessment and is widely used for developing and engaging employees at workplace.
Effective performance requires right fitment and right fitment can only be achieved by accurate, reliable and up-to-date information about one’s personality.
Aptitude and behavioural assessment methods focus on different pieces of the puzzle. A complete picture can be achieved by both and not either.